First expeditions with climbing to Elbrus from the North side.

It was Summer 1829. It was the first expedition of Academy of Science of Russia and military of Caucasus army line under the leadership of Russian general G. Emmanuel. One of the science leader was Russian Academician E. Leng. This expedition has two local guides: Killar Khashirov and Akhia Sottaev (41 years old) which have been given to expedition by local prince Uruzbiev.
During the climbing E. Leng, Killar Khashirov and Akhia Sottaev reached the saddle and then Killar Khashirov climbed to East peak and Akhia Sottaev accompanied E. Leng back. A lot of persons have seen this ascent by spyglass and all this have been written by E. Leng in year account of Russian Academy of Science. This expedition took place from the north side of Elbrus through the saddle.
Then in 1868 was first England expedition to Elbrus but now from the south: from Terscol and Azau side (via the classic southern route). Their were Leader Duglas Freshfild - England geographer and K.Tukker and A. Murr - England mountain guides
Freshfield's The Exploration of the Caucasus is an exciting account of this achievement. In 1874, another English expedition led by Florence Crawford Grove went to the western peak. Incredible as it may seem, there was a legendary figure who took part in all three of these expeditions: the guide Akhia Sottaev. In 1829, when he was 41 years old, he reached the Col but had to turn back in order to take the scientist E. Lenz back to the valley. Thirty-nine years later, at the age of 80, Sottaev gained the eastern summit with Freshfield's group; not satisfied with this, he conquered the western peak in 1874 (when he was 85!) with Grove, becoming the first person to climb both peaks and most certainly establishing the record as the oldest man to do so. In 1890 the Russian topographer A. Pastukhov climbed the eastern peak and drew up the first physical and geographic map of Mt., Elbrus. The rocks at 4,800 m above sea level through which the route passes bear his name; it is the usual route used for training and acclimatisation by any expedition seeking to conquer Mt. Elbrus. The northern slope of the mountain is not climbed very much. One gains access from the town of Dzhyli-Su, where the most famous hot springs in the region are located, but the route is long and quite difficult. Helicopters can be used to land on the large fertile plateau, which is perfectly flat and serves as a natural airfield (in fact it was used for this purpose by German pilots of the Edelweiss division during the Second World War).

To be continued...